What is Bronchiectasis?

Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory condition characterized by the abnormal widening and scarring of the bronchial tubes, which are the airways that carry air in and out of the lungs. This condition leads to the accumulation of mucus, making it difficult to clear the airways and causing recurrent infections. When mucus stays in the lungs, it makes people with bronchiectasis more likely to get frequent lung infections. Bronchiectasis can also develop if the tissue and muscles that surround the airways are damaged or destroyed. Over time, the lung tissue becomes damaged, and the condition can worsen if left untreated. Bronchiectasis is different than Tuberculosis but also can affect one or both lungs and may range from mild to severe, impacting a person’s quality of life and respiratory function.

Causes of Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis airway comparison
Bronchiectasis can lead to the accumulation of mucus, making it difficult to clear the airways and causing recurrent infections.

Bronchiectasis can be caused by various factors, and the underlying cause often determines the treatment approach. Some common causes include:


Chronic or recurrent lung infections, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis, can damage the airways, leading to bronchiectasis.

Cystic fibrosis (CF)

This genetic disorder causes a thick and sticky mucus to build up in the airways, leading to chronic lung infections and bronchiectasis.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

An autoimmune condition like RA can cause inflammation that affects not only the joints but also the lungs, leading to bronchiectasis in some cases.

Immunodeficiency disorders

Conditions that weaken the immune system can increase the susceptibility to respiratory infections, contributing to the development of bronchiectasis.

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)

This is a hypersensitivity reaction to the fungus Aspergillus, which can cause recurrent lung infections and bronchiectasis in individuals with certain allergies.

Bronchiectasis may also be caused by:

  • Measles
  • Whooping cough
  • Inhaled objects or gases
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

How do you diagnosis bronchiectasis?

Diagnosing bronchiectasis typically involves a combination of medical history evaluation, physical examination, and various imaging and diagnostic tests. It often involves imaging tests like HRCT scans, along with sputum cultures and pulmonary function tests.

Some of the common methods used for diagnosis include:


This procedure involves inserting a thin, flexible tube with a camera into the airways to directly visualize the bronchial tubes and collect samples for further analysis.

chest X-ray bronchiectasis
A chest X-ray may reveal early indicators for bronchiectasis.

Chest X-ray:

X-ray images can provide an initial indication of bronchiectasis, but it may not be sensitive enough to detect early or mild cases.

High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan

This is the most sensitive and specific imaging test for diagnosing bronchiectasis. HRCT provides detailed cross-sectional images of the lungs, enabling visualization of the bronchial walls and any abnormal widening or scarring.

Sputum culture

A sample of mucus coughed up from the lungs is tested for bacterial, viral, or fungal infections.

Pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

These tests measure lung capacity and airflow, helping to assess the extent of lung damage.


Bronchiectasis Treatment

While most bronchiectasis cases can be managed with medical interventions, surgical treatment may be considered in severe cases with localized or widespread disease to improve lung function and quality of life.

The main treatments for bronchiectasis include:

  • Chest physiotherapy and other exercisesto help clear mucus out of your lungs
  • Medication to help improve airflow within the lungs
  • Medication to block stomach acid
  • Antibiotics to treat any lung infections that develop
  • A lung transplant (for severe disease and for people who meet certain conditions).
  • Smoking cessation

The two main surgical approaches depend on the extent of disease:

Localized disease

If bronchiectasis is limited to a specific area of the lung and causing recurrent infections, a surgical procedure called “lobectomy” may be performed. During a lobectomy, the affected lobe of the lung is removed to prevent further infections and improve overall lung function.

Widespread disease

In more severe cases where large portions of both lungs are affected, a lung transplantation may be considered as a last resort. Lung transplantation can provide a new, healthier lung for the patient, but it comes with its own set of challenges, such as the need for immunosuppression to prevent rejection.

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