Benign prostate hyperplasia means enlarged prostate gland. The prostate is one of the glands of the male reproductive system. It is positioned underneath the bladder and encircles the urethra (the tube used to void).
The prostate gland in adults remains a constant size until approximately age 40, then begins to enlarge. When the prostate enlarges, this can cause trouble passing urine. The bladder then has to push harder to overcome the prostate which is providing increased resistance to urine flow.
If the blockage continues by the prostate growing the bladder may be unable to empty, leading to a condition called urinary retention.
Signs & Symptoms
Symptoms of BPH
With BPH, the prostate gets larger. When it is enlarged, it can irritate or block the bladder. As BPH progresses, other symptoms begin to appear.
BPH Symptoms include:
Feeling that the bladder is full, even right after urinating
Feeling that urinating “can’t wait”
Weak urine flow
Dribbling of urine
The need to stop and start urinating several times
Trouble starting to urinate
The need to push or strain to urinate
Getting up at night to urinate more than 2 times
Causes & Diagnosis
Causes and Diagnosis of BPH
Causes of BPH
Men naturally produce testosterone, a male hormone, and small amounts of estrogen, a female hormone. As men age, active testosterone in their blood decreases, which leaves a higher proportion of estrogen. Some scientific studies have shown that benign prostatic hyperplasia may occur because the higher proportion of estrogen inside the prostate, increases cell growth. Another hormone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has a well known role in prostate growth As men age, the testosterone levels drop, but they continue to produce and accumulate high levels of DHT in the prostate. DHT encourages prostate cells to grow.
Urinalysis (urine test)
PSA blood test to screen for prostate cancer
Urinary blood test to screen for bladder cancer
Post-void residual volume (PVR) to measure urine left in the bladder after urinating
Uroflowmetry to measure how fast urine flows
Cystoscopy to look at the urethra or bladder with a scope
Urodynamic pressure to test pressure in the bladder during urinating
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