What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Testicular Cancer?
- A lump or swelling of a testicle
- Breast growth or soreness
- Low back pain
- Early puberty
Causes & Risk Factors
Testicular cancer occurs when the healthy cells in your testicles become altered, however, research is not clear on the key causes of testicular cancer in most cases.
Testicular Cancer Risk Factors:
- Family history – genetics
- Age – testicular cancer is the most common cancer in American males ages 15 to 35
- Race – More common in Caucasian men
- An undescended testicle during fetal development
- Abnormal testicle development
If you are diagnosed with testicular cancer, your urologic oncologist will determine the stage of the disease. Staging is a way to classify cancer by how much of the disease is in the body and whether it has spread. This helps doctors plan the best way to treat the cancer.
This stage is testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS), often a precancerous condition in which there are germ cells that appear cancerous but are not yet behaving the way cancer cells do. CIS becomes cancer when the cells spread to areas of the testicle(s) where they do not normally belong.
The primary tumor is only in the testicle, which may include the rete testis. It has not grown into blood vessels or lymph vessels in the testicles. The tumor may have grown into the inner membrane layer surrounding the testicle, called the tunica albuginea. It has not spread to the outer membrane layer surrounding the testicle, called the tunica vaginalis.
The tumor is in the testicle, which may include the rete testis, and it has grown into blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. Or the tumor has grown into the fatty tissue next to the epididymis called the hilar soft tissue, the epididymis, or the tunica vaginalis, with or without growth to blood or lymph vessels.
The tumor has grown into the spermatic cord, without or without growth to blood or lymph vessels.
The tumor has grown into the scrotum, without or without growth to blood or lymph vessels.