Stones can be treated with shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopic lithotripsy, tube (PCNL) and occasionally open or laparoscopic surgery. Basic metabolic evaluation consists of urine analysis and electrolytes especially checking for hypercalcemia.
Full metabolic work-up is usually reserved for repeat stone formers using 24 hour urine testing.
Kidney stone treatment depends on the size and type of stone as well as whether infection is present. Stones 4 mm and smaller in about 90 percent of cases; those 5–7 mm do so in 50 percent of cases; and those larger than 7 mm rarely pass without a surgical procedure.